Learning Module Overview for:
The Immune Response to Opportunistic Fungal Infections

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Release date: September 30, 2008
Expiration date: September 30, 2009

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This learning activity has been designated for 0.75 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in this activity.

Target Audience
This learning activity is intended for oncologists, hematologists, infectious disease specialists who treat transplant patients and other patient populations at risk for developing fungal infections.

Learning Objectives
After completing this educational activity, the learner should be better able to:
  • Understand the principle host defense mechanisms employed against Candida, Aspergillus, and the zygomycetes.
  • Gain knowledge into the relationship between host and pathogen factors in determining the likelihood and outcome of a fungal infection
  • Estimate the risk of developing specific mycoses in patients with various immune deficiency states
Stuart M. Levitz, MD
Professor of Medicine and Molecular Genetics & Microbiology
University of Massachusetts Medical School
Worcester, Massachusetts

Shmuel Shoham, MD
Scientific Director
MedStar Clinical Research Center
Transplant Infectious Diseases
Washington Hospital Center
Washington, DC

Medical Writer
Laurel McKee Ranger
Randolph, NJ

Disclosure of Financial Interests
As an accredited provider of continuing medical education, Imedex, LLC is required to ask authors to disclose any real or apparent conflict of interest they may have as related to the content of their module(s). The existence of commercial or financial interests of speakers related to the subject matter of their module(s) should not be construed as implying bias or decreasing the value of their module(s). However, the disclosure should help participants form their own judgments.

All authors were independently selected by the organizing committee. Those authors who disclosed affiliations or financial interests with the commercial organizations involved with products, to which they may refer are listed below.
  1. grant research
  2. consultant
  3. speaker's bureau
  4. stock shareholder
  5. other support

Dr Stuart Levitz
Does not report any affiliations with commercial organizations

Dr Shmuel Shoham
Supporters of this activity:
Astellas Pharma US, Inc.1,3
Pfizer Inc1,3

Other affiliations:
Baxter Healthcare Corporation1
Enzon Pharmaceuticals, Inc1,3
Schering-Plough Corporation3

Medical Writer
Laurel McKee Ranger
Does not report any affiliations with commercial organizations.

Imedex, LLC Staff Disclosure of Financial Relationships
Imedex, LLC is a subsidiary of AmerisourceBergen Specialty Group, which is a subsidiary of AmerisourceBergen Company. All Imedex staff members, except for the following, who are in a position to control the content of this activity, have no financial relationships with any commercial interests that are relevant to this activity:

Keith Steward, MD, MBA, owns shares of Pfizer Inc and Johnson & Johnson, as well as stock options for AmerisourceBergen.

Chris Bolwell owns shares of GlaxoSmithKline and stock options for AmerisourceBergen.

Bradley Bongiovanni, ND, Becky Lynch, RN, Emily Geiger, and Don Harting, MA, ELS own stock options for AmerisourceBergen.

Imedex, LLC is an independent provider of continuing medical education. Imedex, LLC has no proprietary or financial interest in medical or healthcare products over which the FDA has regulatory authority.

Disclosure of Unapproved Uses and Investigational Drugs
This activity may contain information about experimental and other uses of drugs or devices that are not currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and/or other national regulatory agencies in the United States and other countries. Participants in the United States are encouraged to consult the FDA-approved product labeling for any drug or device mentioned in this program before use. Participants from other countries should consult with their respective regulatory authorities.

Statement of Commercial Support
The following companies have provided unrestricted educational grants in support of this activity: Astellas Pharma US, Inc. and Pfizer Inc.

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